Program 1

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Basic Commands

  • fd(x) , forward(x)

    Moves the turtle x points

  • back (x) , bk(x)

    The turtle back x points

  • left(x) , lt(x)

    Rotate the turtle left x degrees

  • right(x) , rt(x)

    Rotate the turtle left x degrees

  • clearscreen, cs

    Will clear the screen and return the turtle home

Controlling the Pen

  • penup , pu

    Turtle stops leaving a trail

  • pendown , pd

    The turtle will leave a trail

  • setwaittime (x) , swt (x)

    Will set the waiting time to x milliseconds

  • wait

    Will cause the turtle to wait before executing the command

  • setwidth (x)

    Will set the pen width to X

  • hideturtle , ht

    Hide the turtle

  • showturtle , st

    Show the turtle

  • home

    Moves the turtle to center, pointing upwards

  • setx (num) , sety (num)

    Move turtle to the specified location

  • setxy (num1,num2)

    Move turtle to the specified location

  • setheading (x) , seth (x)

    Rotate the turtle to the specified heading

  • arc (ANGLE, RADIUS)

    Will create an arc distance RADIUS covering ANGLE angle

  • ellipse (Width , Height)

    Will craete an ellipse width Width and height Height

  • pos , xcor , ycor

    Outputs the current turtle position as [ x y ], x or y respectively

  • heading

    Outputs the current turtle heading

  • towards

    Outputs the heading towards the specified [ x y ] coordinates

Loops and procedure

  • repeat x [ statements ... ]

    Repeat statements x times

  • repcount

    Outputs the current iteration number of the current repeat or forever

  • for controllist [ statements ...]

    Typical for loop. The controllist specifies three or four members: the local varname, start value, limit value, and optional step size

  • to PROCNAME inputs ... statements ... end

    Define a new named procedure with optional inputs

  • make varname expr

    Update a variable or define a new global variable. The variable name must be quoted, e.g. make 'foo 5


    access the content of VARNAME


  • list thing1 thing2 ...

    Create a new list from the inputs

  • first listname

    Outputs the first item from the list

  • butfirst listname , bf listname

    Outputs all the items of listname except for the first item

  • last listname

    Outputs the last item from the list

  • butlast listname

    Outputs all the items of listname except for the last item

  • item index list

    Outputs the indexlist item of the list or array

  • pick listname

    Outputs one item from a list, at random


  • setcolor (x)

    Will set the turtle color accroding to the following table

    0: black 1: blue 2: green
    3: cyan 4: red 5: magenta
    6: yellow 7: white 8: brown
    9: tan 10: green 11: aqua
    12: salmon 13: purple 14: orange
    15: gray

  • setcolor [r,g,b]

    Will set the turtle color accroding to the amount of red , green and blue for example setcolor [50 100 50]

  • fill

    Does a paint bucket flood fill at the turtle's position

  • filled fillcolor [ statements ... ]

    Execute statements without drawing but keeping track of turtle movements. When complete, fill the region traced by the turtle with fillcolor and outline the region with the current pen style


  • sum x y

    sum x y

  • minus x y

    return the distance between x and y

  • random (x)

    Will choose a random number between 0 - (x-1)

  • modulo expr expr

    Outputs the remainder (modulus). For remainder and % the result has the same sign as the first input; for modulo the result has the same sign as a the second input.

  • Your functions